What will happen to gold prices in 2012?

The macroeconomic environment in 2012 was set for uncertainty, instability and increased anxiety. The EU will have to choose whether to print money or face a recession; US policy remains difficult, and growth in China and India has slowed.

Gold prices hit a six-month low in December 2011, when they came under pressure from investors and banks looking for money and weak physical demand from China. Since then, they have been steadily recovering, but have remained below the 200-day moving average of $ 1,634. However, yesterday (October 1, 2012) gold finally broke this barrier, which suggests that gold can now gain momentum and begin to grow more steadily.

Murenbeeld, chief economist at Dundee Wealth Economics, sees the monetary link (or quantitative easing) as a key bullish factor in gold prices. If Europe wants to avoid a recession, it may have to release a version of quantitative easing, if that happens, there is no way to say where the price of gold will end up.

In the short term, the strength of the US dollar is the most limiting factor for gold prices. However, it is fundamentally overvalued, and as such Congress could impose a “devaluation,” which in turn would be good for gold.

Despite the recent slowdown in China, demand for gold remains strong thanks to growing wealth, fears of inflation, easing monetary policy and, of course, the approaching Chinese New Year. However, if the Chinese economy plunges into recession, gold prices could be reduced.

Most banks lowered their gold price forecasts for 2012. HSBC’s chief commodity analyst, James Steele, changed its forecast to $ 1,850 based on a weak euro, liquidation and disappointing physical demand from emerging markets. Barclays averaged $ 1,875, and Deutcsche Bank lowered its average forecast to $ 1,825. However, all these adjusted forecasts can still be considered bullish, given the current price of gold around $ 1630.

According to an annual industry forecast study by the London Bar Association (LBMA), 23 of the largest bullion banks have predicted that gold prices will exceed the highest value of $ 1920 reached in 2011 and may to exceed $ 2,000 in 2012

Negative real interest rates and the purchase of gold by central banks will continue to support the attractiveness of buying gold. The amount of available physical gold is shrinking, thanks to demand from emerging economies and accumulation by central banks. As a result, increased investor demand is likely to lead to a long-term trend of higher gold prices, which will lead to an increase in the average over the next few years.

This year, gold prices are likely to be as volatile as in 2011, with large gains, often followed by declines that could lead investors to question the asset class of gold. Golden bears may have been everywhere by the end of 2011, predicting low levels of $ 1,000 or less, but they were wrong just like in the past and now gold has shaken off losses at the end of the year and is preparing for a new bull, so that if you’re not already this may be the perfect time to invest in gold.

Technical Analysis – A trend on your path to big profits

If you look at each chart of currencies, you will see that they are moving in trends. Of course, they are easy to spot in retrospect. Determining your entry levels and following these trends is of course more difficult and the goal of all forex traders, but 95% fail and lose their money.

If you use or want to use technical analysis, you need to know the basics of following trends and here are some tips to help you earn.

Let’s look at 3 types of trends and then look at some tips for trading them:

1. Long-term trends

As currencies reflect the basic health of the economy and the economic cycle, there are currency trends that last for months or even years and this is the main trend.

2. Intermediate trends

They last for somewhere between a few weeks and months and are reactions within the larger primary trend.

3. Short-term trends

They last from a few days to about a few weeks.

All of the above can be traded for profit and the trends you want to move are reduced to personal style and taste of trading.

Trends not to trade

Many of you will have wondered why we ignore daily and intraday trends.

The answer is that they simply cannot be traded.

Although you can see them retrospectively, one-day data is unreliable, as all daily and intraday volatility is arbitrary.

If the data cannot be used to get the odds in your favor, you will lose when you follow the trend, with any form of technical analysis.

Following trends in very short periods is a cup game, so you never see a day trader with experience in profits.

So how do you catch the trends and come up with the best risk reward?

Well, this is a challenge for all FOREX traders and as we said, it’s harder than most people think – that’s why 95% of traders lose.

Here are some currency trading tips for capturing currency trends and turning them into profits:

1. Understand the concept of support and resistance and trade breakthroughs.

The fact is that most big market movements start from new market peaks, NOT market lows, so if you use breakthroughs, you will catch really big movements.

2. When buying support or selling resistance, DO NOT predict

This is a big mistake made by novice traders. Then buy support and “hope” it stays.

When you follow the trend, this is a good way to lose. You anticipate where, as you need to act upon confirmation.

Always wait for a support test and use an inertia indicator to indicate a change in direction in your favor BEFORE entering the trade.

This will confirm that the support or resistance has been retained and your momentum has reversed, after which the chances are in your favor.

3. The differences between long-term and short-term trend

The concepts are generally the same, but I think there is a difference between following long-term and intermediate trends and short-term trends.

With long-term and intermediate trends you can track stops in short-term trading, you need to use a target.

Because profits are smaller and shorter in the latter, they can disappear quickly, so you need to “hit and run” and bank profits to achieve your goal.

When we do the above, we always set the goal lower than consensus.

If prices are generally level-oriented and the market is looking for it, we will bank earlier.

4. Patience

Following the trend involves being patient and staying away until you see an opportunity that fits your methodology.

Do not rush to trade – trade only when the odds are in your favor.

Capturing trends and making profits from them is difficult, but with the right approach and trading only when the odds are in your favor, you can accumulate some big profits

Good luck

Basic things for creating an investment portfolio

Investing is not a game. Not for the faint of heart. Stock markets are moving up and down. One cannot simply predict the market. It is not possible to predict its movement. Therefore, it may not be time to be up and down. One can build a solid portfolio to succeed. A few considerations to keep in mind.

Invest with a purpose – As discussed in one of the points, the purpose of the investment must be kept in mind. Even before you start investing. One must know how much it will cost to achieve this goal. The goal shows the way to investment. Always adjust it when the investment deviates from the path. Yogi Bera, a wise baseball philosopher, sums it up: “If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll miss it every time.”

Your current situation and the risk you can take – What is your financial situation today? How much he has earned and how much he has saved so far. In the future what will be needed. How much do you have to earn to save enough money to fulfill the desired goal.

If the savings are insufficient, then these savings should be directed to investments. Then the amount will increase in the shorter period. When the investment appears, the topic of risk arises.

All investments carry risk. The level may vary depending on the type of investment. One extreme is people who take high risks, and the other extreme is risk-averse. It depends on the nature of the individual and the circumstances.

With the risk comes the reward. High risk, high rewards. Low risk, low rewards. Usually people take the middle ground. Medium risk and average rewards. One can avail the help of the best provider of sharing tips to alleviate the situation.

Goal – There must be a specific goal or investment goal. It must be personal such as a holiday abroad or buying a home, marriage, education or retirement or something similar. Once the goal or objectives have been set, the time to achieve them should be determined. It can be a week or a month, a year or a decade.

For example, going on a holiday trip to Europe next summer. Here the goal is a vacation trip. The duration is 2 years. What you want to do and when. Get great future tips, a two-day free trial.

Quality, not quantity – In the long run, quality, not quantity, lasts. Whatever the components of your portfolio, make sure it maintains quality. Because someone’s possession is extremely important.

Diversified investment – The portfolio should not be exposed in a random way. You have to come to terms with proper planning. It should be placed after considering the basic and technical characteristics of the securities.

The portfolio should be diverse in different sectors (IT, banks), capital (small, medium, large) industries (cement, mining, pharmacy), bonds, fixed deposits, reserve funds, precious metals and stones (gold, diamonds), MFs , real estate, geographical regions, commodity advice, etc.

The risk tolerance of the investor must also be taken into account here. Some investments are risky in the short term, but not risky in the long run. There are many stock market consulting companies that can calculate the associated risk.

Shares need to look for cash flow, product, profits, dividend history, management, place among competitors, etc. of the company.

Current market shares can be expensive or cheap, depending on the current political environment, supply and demand, and so on. Buy only quality shares with rating “A”.

Follow the trend in Forex – most traders do not, but you have to, it brings huge profits!

Following trends is actually very easy to learn and you seem to hold on to movements that last from a week to more than a year. Of course, if you get into the right trends, you can make a lot of money, so let’s look at the benefits:

Every free market offers trends

The trend of currencies, like any other instrument in the free market, and they can all be traded in the same way and you get upward and bearish trends so you can make money in any economic climate.

Trade the reality of price movements

Decision-making that follows the trend does not involve predictions, “gut” feelings, or “shooting from the thigh,” nor does it involve studying the financial press. Following a trend simply requires you to follow a simple set of rules that are objective and allow you to see changes in price momentum and lock in trends.

Makes huge profits

Following the trend seems to be a combined absolute return. Do not shoot for “small”. or average profits and in times of financial market turmoil, this can bring you huge profits.

Take advantage of mass human psychology

The price of the currency is simply the subjective expectations of traders, reflected objectively. People’s reactions to the markets always remain the same – the majority follow each other and eventually lose. People like to be social and compliant, even if the group is wrong. When traders follow each other, they fall into the hysteria of the crowd and that means losses. Following trends will always make money because most traders just can’t think for themselves.

You don’t have to earn a lot of traders to make huge profits

Following the trend, it defines exit rules to control losses in your account and when you quickly make losing trades to keep the capital in your account. The profit loss ratio does not matter when following the trend. If you keep the trend for a week or months, it will cover very small losses. You can have more losses than gains when following a trend, but the amount of your winnings can sometimes be 10 to 20 times the size of your losers, so you can see why you don’t need to have a high ratio of winners to losers to make big wins

Following big moves means a low cost of doing business

If you trade a lot a day, you lose a lot in transaction costs in terms of the profit you are aiming for, but this is not the case. With this long-term trading method, your business costs are minimal and increase your overall profits.

If you want to make big profits, the good news is that this method is easy to learn

You do not need fantastic systems or indicators to learn this method of trading, it can be learned by anyone, and you also have the confidence to know that it works from the beginning of the market. So instead of struggling to make money and put in a lot of effort in the short term, follow the trends through price action and make huge profits, as professional traders do.

Technical indicators will make you a successful trader

Trading indicators will help you predict market behavior and by default will make you a better trader. A trading chart should not be created without some technical indicators to help the trader make a decision. In most cases, these technical indicators use old mathematical formulas applied to the current price compared to market conditions such as volume or momentum to determine the correct direction of the price.

The technical indicators for Forex trading are divided into different groups. Among them, an inertia indicator can help determine the direction of the currency’s price. A volume indicator can also help determine price movements. Applying these indicators in technical analysis helps traders determine the direction of currency prices and when to enter into a transaction.

Impulse indicators help determine when a trend is coming to an end and a new trend is more likely to develop. Some of the most commonly used indicators are the Commodity Channel Index (CCI), the Relative Strength Index (RSI), the Stochastic Oscillator, and the Oscillator of Change. The relative strength index is usually responsible for measuring the uptrend and the downtrend. These measurements are listed in three separate categories. This includes a level of overbought currency, which is from 70 upwards, while at 30 or lower, is an indication that the currency has been resold. The role of variability as an indicator is to describe the effect of fluctuations on the price of the currency compared to the current price. According to research, volatility indicators can be excellent for determining the state of market activity.

Currently, the best variability indicators you can find on the market are Chaikins variability and Bollinger bands. They are able to provide and measure the trend directions of traders. This can be achieved in many ways, which include a linear regression indicator and moving averages. However, according to research, the trader’s perception of these indicator signals will be important, as they can sometimes give false signals.

The final indicators will include a predictive oscillator, a simple moving average, MACD and parabolic SAR. Just to mention, in a previous article, we discussed MACD at length.

Volume indicators

They are used for various functions in trade. This includes confirming trends and pressures in buying, selling and more. In this case, the increase in volume is what will always determine the increase in price. The trader is given a chance to turn if in the absence of indicators to confirm the volume. It is preferable to use a demand index, Chaikin variability and ROC volume for better results. They are stable with less fluctuations in the price of the currency, which is why they are recommended for accuracy in your trading.

Acquisition of skills for forecasting exchange rates

The forex market is very complex and it takes a practicing eye to analyze, interpret and understand many areas and mountains of data that one needs to analyze in order to accurately predict the trends in the foreign exchange market. But at the same time, there are thousands of forex traders and brokers who do just that every day. Not all of them are successful – some want to get involved in the “quick financial assassination” without doing so much analysis of the data that needs to be done, and they lose their shirts very regularly.

Generally speaking, there are two main lines of thinking about the best way to forecast the foreign exchange market and exchange rates. The most successful forex traders use a combination of the two methods, but the two methods are technical analysis and fundamental analysis.

The technical analysis approach examines past actions in the foreign exchange market and tries to extrapolate this data to determine what will happen in the future. From a human point of view, this works very precisely, because how you have reacted to a certain situation in the past is almost the same as how you would react to it in the future. The forex market is very similar in this respect, as much of the foreign exchange market is dictated by human factors and how people have reacted to something in the past is generally a very good indicator of how they will react to something in the future. Not always, but generally speaking.

Conversely, the use of the fundamental approach of analysis to forecast the foreign exchange market looks at things a little more in depth. At the same time, it does look at very similar data in different ways, so this method can be as accurate as the technical approach. Fundamental analysis examines many different factors, such as political events, the degree of government involvement in different countries, and what is happening socially and economically in the country at the moment.

A forex trader who is very good at fundamental analysis can predict that the foreign exchange market will decline as his research shows that the government is currently very volatile, or it may increase if a popular one has just been chosen on the spot. new leader. In principle, everything that happens in the country that affects the economy of this nation is likely to affect exchange rates.

As mentioned earlier, the most successful forex traders will use a combination of these two methods to try to predict how the foreign exchange market will fare. But one of the problems that all traders face is that having this kind of in-depth knowledge of so many different factors for several different countries at the same time is a difficult task. The best forex traders have largely turned to technology, using tools that can analyze these mountains of data to produce summaries on which to base trading decisions.

This use of technology allows them to look at many more factors, make decisions faster, and be in the right place at the right time with their buying or selling decisions. This does not mean that they always have successful trades, but for the most part the use of tools and technologies allows them to make much more profitable trades than the losers.

A guide to knowing how to trade binary options

In the last few years, a new form of investment has emerged that allows thousands of people to make a daily profit. Binary options have taken their place against the backdrop of currency or currency trading and traditional stock market investments as a powerful way to make profits and expand portfolios. Many people are currently learning how this works to increase their daily income.

However, understanding how to trade binary options is not as simple as traditional stocks or even currency trading. There are significant differences in the structure itself, which is unlike anything else. And yet this is probably the simplest form of investment available to most people.

To find out if this is for you, it is important to know what they are and how this system works. This will include potential advantages and disadvantages that make binaries one of the most interesting options when it comes to making money.

What are binary options?

In essence, this is a form of investing in stocks that is very clear and easy to understand. They are called binaries because they work as “high / low”. A preset period is entered and the user selects an asset or currency as the target of his investment. If a person places a bet correctly in the direction of the option he has chosen, he receives a fixed rate of return for a successful prediction. An incorrect forecast means that they are losing their investment.

For example, suppose you think the asset will grow in value to a forecast level for a predetermined period of time when the call option is ordered. The bet they make will not only be paid out, but will be increased by a fixed rate of return, which can be over 75% if successful. However, if the asset they choose has not risen to that level, they lose the bet or investment they made.

This works in another way. If you believe that the market value of a particular asset or commodity will fall for a predetermined period of time, then an option or bet is made. If the prediction comes true, you gain a fixed return, otherwise you lose the investment.

This is the main method used by people all over the world. It should be noted that in the US they are usually offered by individual brokers and not by exchanges, while brokers outside the US are not allowed to claim US residents for trading purposes unless they are duly registered with a recognized body such as the SEC. It is important to understand how to trade binary options, they must be done with a properly recognized broker.

The different types of transactions: –

While high / low trading is perhaps the most common type in which the all-or-nothing approach is absolute, there are other forms in which people make money on a daily basis. Probably most people start with the high / low format and then branch out to find the type that works best for their needs. However, the following forms have equally powerful potential for significant profits.

One touch: This is a very interesting change in binary options, because instead of estimating the value at the end of a predetermined period, once the value of the asset or commodity reaches a pre-selected level, it will be paid to the trader. For example, if a trader sets a “touch” value of $ 10 for an asset within a one-day period, if the asset reaches $ 10 in the first hour, it closes and the trader is paid a fixed return. This is regardless of how much time is actually left for the trade itself.

Range: This is another form in which a range of the price that the asset will borrow for a predetermined period. If the price stays within this range, then it pays off, while if the price has to exceed or exceed the intended range, the investment is lost.

Fixed payouts can also vary, offering from 50% to 500% depending on the conditions. Generally speaking, the higher the payout, the less likely it is to happen. Therefore, most transactions fall in the range of 50% to 75%.

Advantages and disadvantages:-

When it comes to understanding these opportunities, it is worth knowing what the potential gains and losses can be. This is because it is literally a win-win situation for each event, which means that you either receive a significant reward or lose your entire investment. And yet there are many people who make money every day using this system.

Simplicity is probably the biggest advantage, without any fees or commissions taking some of your profits. Plus, you don’t have to worry about the asset itself taking more than what you’ve invested. Even if the value drops to zero, you only lose the money you invested. This is a big reason why more and more people are learning how to trade binary options.

The biggest drawback, however, is that the reward will always be less than the risk, which means you will have to be right most of the time to make a profit. This means that the loss will cost you more than the profit. So you will have to be right at least two to three times more often to make a profit.

In this seemingly difficult atmosphere, there are those who earn daily so that it can be done. This is primarily because they often make several trades a day and risk a very low amount of money. When it comes to how to trade options the right way, the winning strategy is to make a few, low-risk trades where the rewards will be added when you win a lot more than you lose.

After all, this is one of the easiest and most successful methods of making a profit, if you can master the necessary research, time and patience.

What is the technical analysis of the foreign exchange market?

Technicians or (technical analysts) use technical analysis of the Forex market in an attempt to predict future trends and prices. Their future forecasts in the foreign exchange market are mainly based on a review of previous price charts. They look at current price charts and trends and use technical analysis of the Forex market to look for distinctive similar chart patterns that have happened in the past in the hope that current prices and trends will be similar to those of the past.

However, some analysts insist that graphical models from history cannot be used for future forecasts and that the models can only be random due to the uniqueness of human participation in the market.

This still does not stop technical analysts from trying to use previous graphical models to forecast the future foreign exchange market. There are many types of chart models that they use in their predictions.

Analysts also use indicators and oscillators in the technical analysis of the Forex market, separately and together with the study of graphical models, to predict changes in trends or price models.

In general, indicators are a series of data used to forecast currency movements and are calculations that are based on the price and / or volume of securities to measure trends, cash flow, momentum and volatility.

Indicators help analysts understand the strength and sustainability of a trend, while price charts will help the analyst determine if a trend is worth pursuing.

The technical analysis of the Forex market is built around these three basic principles.

1. Market action gives way to everything! In principle, price is based on everything that affects the market, such as policy, market perception and supply and demand. Technical analysis does not worry about what causes the price to move up and down. Only his actual movement makes it difficult.

2. Prices move in trends. Where there has been a noticeable movement in the market, technical analysis is used to calculate the patterns of that movement. With certain models there is a good chance that the prognosis will be good. There are also models that are predictable on a regular basis.

3. History repeats itself. Chart models have been known in forex technical analysis for more than a century, and human behavior has not changed much during that time. As the chart patterns have not changed much all this time, they are not expected to change too much in the future.

Why there will never be another bitcoin

Well, those were crazy 10 years for bitcoin. In fact, it’s been more than 10 years since bitcoin was first created by Satoshi Nakamoto. Whoever he, she or they are, they have had a profound effect on the world. They no doubt foresaw this, which is why they chose to disappear from the spotlight.

So more than a decade later, bitcoin is still alive and stronger than ever. Thousands of other crypto coins have appeared since everyone tried to imitate the king of crypto. Everyone has failed and will continue to fail. Bitcoin is one of a kind. Something that cannot be repeated. If you don’t know why, let me explain.

If you don’t know what bitcoin is, I’ll give you a few brief key points:

  • Bitcoin is an online cryptocurrency

  • It has a maximum stock of 21 million

  • It cannot be falsified

  • Not all coins are in circulation yet

  • It is completely decentralized, without anyone controlling it

  • It cannot be censored

  • This is Peer to Peer Money

  • Anyone can use it

  • Bitcoin has a fixed supply that decreases every 4 years

What makes bitcoin different?

So what makes bitcoin different from all the thousands of other coins that have been invented since then?

When Bitcoin was first invented, it began to spread slowly among a small group of people. It grows organically. As people began to see the benefits of bitcoin and how the price would increase due to its fixed supply, it began to grow faster.

The Bitcoin blockchain is now distributed to hundreds of thousands of computers around the world. It has spread beyond the control of any government. Its creator has disappeared and now works autonomously.

Developers can upgrade and improve the bitcoin network, but this must be done with my consensus throughout the bitcoin network. No one can control bitcoin. This makes Bitcoin unique and impossible to play.

There are currently thousands of other cryptocurrencies, but as an example of what makes Bitcoin different, I will use Ethereum as an example. This is one of the largest alto coins at the moment and is since it was invented in 2015 by Vitalik Buterin.

Vitalik controls the Ethereum blockchain and essentially has the final say on any development that happens on Ethereum.

Censorship and state intervention

For this example, imagine that Iran is sending billions of dollars to North Korea to fund its new nuclear weapons program. This is not a good situation, but it should show you how your money is more secure in bitcoin!

Anyway .. first example. Iran uses the standard banking system and converts this money into North Korea in US dollars. The US government says, wait a minute, we need to freeze these transactions and confiscate the money. Easy. They do it right away and the problem is over.

Second example. The same thing is happening again, but this time Iran is using the Ethereum blockchain to send the money to North Korea. The US government sees what is happening. A phone call is in progress.

“Get Vitalik Buterin here NOW”

The US government is “putting some pressure” on Vitalik and is forcing him to cancel the blockchain and cancel Iran’s transactions. (The Ethereum blockchain was actually reversed when a hacker stole a significant amount of money).

Problem solved. Unfortunately, Ethererum’s credibility will be shattered along with its price.

Ethereum is just an example, but this is true for any other cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin cannot be stopped

So the same thing happens again. This time, Iran uses Bitcoin as a method of payment. The US government sees this and is powerless to stop it.

There is no one to call. There is no one to put pressure. Bitcoin is out of censorship.

Every other cryptocurrency out there is created by someone or some company and this will always be the point of failure. They are still centralized.

Another example would be if Vitalik’s family is taken hostage. Bitcoin is beyond all this and is therefore the safest investment on the planet.

Learn how to use bitcoin

Everyone should own bitcoin. However, this is not without danger. If you are new to Bitcoin, then you need to learn as much as you can before investing money. Owning bitcoin comes with a lot of responsibility. Learn how to use bitcoin safely.

Binary options trading robots

In most forms of investment, the investor actually buys an asset and monitors its value. If the investor sells the asset back on the market when its price has risen, he has made a profit. If he sells it when the price drops, he has made a loss. Here is the actual movement of the asset, with its added responsibilities to the investor.

When trading options, you anticipate the value of the asset for a predetermined period of time. There is no psychological pressure to actually have the asset with you.

There are only two investment options in binary options that you can anticipate

Call – when you predict that the value of the asset will increase

Place – where you predict it will go down.

What are the assets that can be traded as binary options?

Stock indices, Forex (combinations of foreign currencies), Commodities such as gold, silver, Stocks

Although considered a building block for the pricing of assets and financial derivatives, they are abused rudely and many fraudulent operators have committed fraud.

These are known as all-or-nothing options, digital options (when operating in the currency or interest rate markets), and FROs or fixed-return options on the US stock exchange.

Binary options trading is unregulated rather than regulated.

Automatic binary trading is when robots trade based on software developed by algorithmic stock trading. Automated trading uses electronic platforms where the trading order is entered with an algorithm. The platforms execute the instructions for trading variables such as price, time, etc. The order can be initiated by the robot without human intervention. This type of algorithmic or robotic trading is used by investment bankers, mutual fund houses or institutional traders, while dividing their large trades into smaller ones to manage market risk. This automated trading is considered superior and accurate to that made by you or me.

How to make automatic binary trading work for you?

Automated binary options providers charge a trader and sell him a robot that the trader downloads. This downloaded software will perform transactions on behalf of the merchant based on the requirements of the merchant’s keys.

There are certain signals that are provided to the trader, informing him of the value of the asset on which the trader has made binary options. They are built into the robot software. They are also compliant with the requirements and the trade is made for optimal trading success for the investor. They usually identify assets that meet predefined criteria showing movement in a certain direction. Some signal providers are independent of the binary options provider (broker).

How to choose the best robot for automatic binary options

· It should be easy to use

· There must be proven results.

· Its profit must be significant

· Must provide high quality reports and analyzes along with its business to be used by the trader.

· Automatic transactions must be possible

· Fully configurable

· It is widely tested before being delivered to the customer.

· They must be designed by industry experts

· Easy to monitor and functioning properly.